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Alopecia areata

Hair loss that causes round patches. Its pathogenesis has not been totally clarified and its aetiology is considered unknown, although much related to stress situations.
There may also be a self-immune substrate.

In many cases this condition only affects one point (Alopecia Areata Monolocularis) and usually heals spontaneously, but it can also spread to the entire head (Alopecia Areata Totalis) or to the body as a whole (Alopecia Areata Universalis).

It can affect both sexes and it is more frequent in children and adolescents; it can nevertheless appear at any age.

The areas are rounded and small in size, on the scalp or beard.
In alopecia Areata, the area of affected skin looks normal, there is no inflammation, redness, scaling or other anomalies, which differentiates it from other alopecia.

The hair follicles are not destroyed with this disease, so the hair usually grows back, although relapses are very common in patients who have suffered it before, as  the triggering factors persist.

According to some studies, the presence of dental infectious foci can cause Alopecia Areata, with localised hair loss.

Alopecia Areata

Types:

  1. Alopecia Areata Incognita (or Diffusa)
  2. Alopecia Areata Monolocularis
  3. Alopecia Areata for Dark Hair
  4. Alopecia Areata Multilocularis
  5. Alopecia Areata Totalis
  6. Alopecia Areata Universalis 

Causes or Multifactorial Origin:

  • Auto-immune mechanism, because there is an accumulation of CD8 T Lymphocytes around the hair follicle, which causes paralysis in hair development and its subsequent loss.
  • Psychic origin such as anxiety or stress.
  • Genetic predisposition.